The megafloral and microfloral assemblages are preserved in association with an O-horizon above a weakly developed palaeosol, exposed in both New and Old Wapadsberg Pass, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Stable-isotope geochemical evidence indicates that pedogenesis occurred under conditions of a high regional water table, and the palaeosol was entombed by overbank or avulsion deposits in an aggradational landscape that includes tuffite. The low-diversity macroflora contains gymnospermous Glossopteris and sphenopsid Phyllotheca, Trizygia elements that include vegetative axial, leaf and reproductive strobilar remains. Glossopteris leaves are microphyllous and may reflect the taxon’s physiological response to purported climate perturbation or wetland edaphic conditions, and exhibit a range of plant—animal interactions. Palynological residues contain sphenophyllalean cuticles, and the microfloral assemblage is consistent with a low-diversity glossoperid-dominated woodland with a sphenopsid understory. Extrabasinal elements include representatives of peltasperms Alisporites , corystosperms Falcisporites , and conifers Lueckisporites. Pollen conforming to Lunatisporites pellucidus is present in the assemblage and is considered an indicator taxon for the latest Permian to Early Triassic.
Ten Stunning Yet Little Known Ancient Treasures Across Africa
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From over a thousand stone circles concentrated in a small area to ruins of great cities, megalithic calendars that predate the pyramids by tens of thousands of years, and the remains of towns that have seen the rise and fall of countless civilizations, there is no shortage of awe-inspiring sites across the continent. Here we feature just ten incredible sites that are little known in the wider world.
The incredible Senegambian Stone Circles It is amazing that the Senegambian Stone Circles are not more well-known considering there are more than 1, of them spread over an area that is km wide and km in length in the countries of Gambia and Senegal in West Africa. Apart from these stone circles, the sites also contain numerous tumuli and burial mounds.
To construct these stone circles, the ancient builders were first required to identify suitable lateritic outcrops for the carving of the stones. Having found the suitable laterite, they were then cut and extracted from the quarry. This was no easy feat as the stones needed to be removed in one piece. At quarry sites, monoliths that were broken in the course of extraction were of no value and were left there.
Finally, the extracted monoliths were transported and erected at various sites along the River Gambia. Imagine this process being repeated for tens of thousands of monoliths, and you get a sense of the massive scale of the Senegambian Stone Circles. It has been suggested, based on archaeological evidence, that this area has been settled since the 4th millennium B.
This is little wonder, as its situation near a water source in the middle of a desert would have made it an important spot for anyone seeking to settle in the area.
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There were two saints with the same name that are usually confused, who lived almost in the same centuries: Solomon is the most famous of the Jewish magicians, and St. Cyprian is the most famous of the Christian magicians.
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Conservation projects and a commitment to protecting the abundance of game have created a wildlife sanctuary of world-class standards. Unchecked hunting was decimating the herds of wild game that roamed free at that time. Motorists and game enthusiasts were allowed entry to the Park in for a fee of one pound. It is about the size of Israel, slightly smaller than Belgium and about the third of the size of Ireland. The Park is wedged between the provinces of Limpopo and Mpumalanga in the north-eastern region of South Africa, with Mozambique on its eastern border and Zimbabwe on its northern border.
Led Zeppelin conclude their reissue campaign with a new edition of the soundtrack to the concert film ‘The Song Remains The Same’, originally released in and featuring newly remastered audio supervised by Jimmy Page.
I celebrate myself, and sing myself, And what I assume you shall assume, For every atom belonging to me as good belongs to you. I loafe and invite my soul, I lean and loafe at my ease observing a spear of summer grass. My tongue, every atom of my blood, form’d from this soil, this air, Born here of parents born here from parents the same, and their parents the same, I, now thirty-seven years old in perfect health begin, Hoping to cease not till death. Creeds and schools in abeyance, Retiring back a while sufficed at what they are, but never forgotten, I harbor for good or bad, I permit to speak at every hazard, Nature without check with original energy.
The atmosphere is not a perfume, it has no taste of the distillation, it is odorless, It is for my mouth forever, I am in love with it, I will go to the bank by the wood and become undisguised and naked, I am mad for it to be in contact with me. Have you reckon’d a thousand acres much? Have you practis’d so long to learn to read?
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Country Splits and Unifications. Ireland | Cyprus | Germany | Soviet Union | Georgia | Czechoslovakia | Romania | Yugoslavia | South Africa | Sudan | Tanzania.
The last of these eventually came to briefly dominate the south of Mesopotamia as the Babylonian Empire , just as the Old Assyrian Empire had already done so in the north from the late 21st century BC. The Sumerian language continued as a sacerdotal language taught in schools in Babylonia and Assyria, much as Latin was used in the Medieval period, for as long as cuneiform was utilized.
Fall and transmission[ edit ] This period is generally taken to coincide with a major shift in population from southern Mesopotamia toward the north. Ecologically, the agricultural productivity of the Sumerian lands was being compromised as a result of rising salinity. Soil salinity in this region had been long recognized as a major problem. During the Akkadian and Ur III phases, there was a shift from the cultivation of wheat to the more salt-tolerant barley , but this was insufficient, and during the period from BC to BC, it is estimated that the population in this area declined by nearly three fifths.
Henceforth, Sumerian would remain only a literary and liturgical language, similar to the position occupied by Latin in medieval Europe. Following an Elamite invasion and sack of Ur during the rule of Ibbi-Sin c. The independent Amorite states of the 20th to 18th centuries are summarized as the ” Dynasty of Isin ” in the Sumerian king list, ending with the rise of Babylonia under Hammurabi c. Population[ edit ] The first farmers from Samarra migrated to Sumer, and built shrines and settlements at Eridu.
Uruk , one of Sumer’s largest cities, has been estimated to have had a population of 50, , at its height;  given the other cities in Sumer, and the large agricultural population, a rough estimate for Sumer’s population might be 0. The world population at this time has been estimated at about 27 million. The Sumerian people who settled here farmed the lands in this region that were made fertile by silt deposited by the Tigris and the Euphrates.
Some archaeologists have speculated that the original speakers of ancient Sumerian may have been farmers, who moved down from the north of Mesopotamia after perfecting irrigation agriculture there.
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Also, Korean clubs were successful in Japan just before the second World War. Apart from shortlived war-time occupations, this section also includes various cases of annexations lasting for decades and a few colonial curiosities. Note that the extension of the Soviet Union by the three Baltic republics as part of the Hitler-Stalin pact is discussed under the disintegration of the Soviet Union , and the special case of Karelia under border moves.
Only once did the Austrian representatives fail to reach the semifinals of the German championship, and even then the Austrian team lost to the eventual winners by the odd goal in five in the quarterfinals. Rapid won both the German championship and cup once, Vienna won one cup and reached the championship final, which Admira also managed once suffering a record final defeat in the process.
Lydenburg is a town in Thaba Chweu Local Municipality, Mpumalanga, South atively known as Mashishing, Lydenburg is situated on the Sterkspruit/Dorps River tributary of the Lepelle River at the base of the Long Tom name is derived from the Dutch Lijdenburg, or “Town of Suffering”. Lydenburg has become the centre of the South African fly-fishing industry and is an.
History[ edit ] The earliest known forms of African sculpture in southern Africa dating back to AD were found in the area in the late s. Lydenburg was founded in by a group of Voortrekkers under the leadership of Andries Potgieter when they abandoned their previous settlement Ohrigstad to the north due to a malaria epidemic. Lydenburg became important because it was on the wagon route to the port of Delagoa Bay now Maputo Bay which was free of British control.
The first wagons arrived in Lydenburg from Delagoa Bay in On 6 February alluvial gold was discovered and within 3 months the Lydenburg goldfields was proclaimed. It was from here that the ill-fated 94th Regiment under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Philip Robert Anstruther marched to Pretoria. The remainder of the garrison at Lydenburg was besieged from 6 January ,  following Long’s refusal to surrender the garrison on 23 December In Lydenburg became a municipality.
A side street in Lydenburg Name change[ edit ] In June it was announced that Arts and Culture minister, Pallo Jordan , approved the name change of Lydenburg to Mashishing meaning “long, green grass”. However one of the rural areas outside Lydenburg is called Mashishing. Road signs still say Lydenburg and businesses and local building such as the “Lydenburg Museum” have still kept the old name.
However some road signs say Mashishing when a person is actually entering the more developed, richer, Lydenburg area.